Friday, May 22, 2020
Has anyone done any research on what the effects Amendment 2 would have on the state Florida? Well the opposition clearly did not do any research and the politicians used smooth talking fallacies to blind side the voters. It is time to see the holes in their stance on medical marijuana. Ã¢â¬Å"The SmokescreenÃ¢â¬ as defined by the author Joe Cardona from the Miami Herald, is the lack of liability Amendment 2 brought to the table when it hit the polls in October. His meaning behind this is because a medical marijuana user would not be receiving a prescription from a trained medical physician. Instead, they would be receiving a referral for a license to receive treatment and they would have it forever. Also as part of Joe CardonaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"SmokescreenÃ¢â¬ theory, because the fact that Amendment 2 is a constitutional amendment that there would have been no way to tweak or amended it, like a legislative law would. So regulating the consumption of medical marijuana would be impossible. (Cardona, 2014) Unfortunately he is not the only one to interpret Amendment 2 this way. Dr. Rafael Miguel, director of the Sarasota Memorial Institute for Advanced Medicine s Pain Medicine Program and representatives for Drug Free America. He states that You don t get refills, you get it forever. There s no regulation on consumption. (Gillin, 2014) These bold statements were completely wrong and very misinforming. The referral would also have a date attached, so a doctor would put on the referral how long theShow MoreRelatedThe Death Penalty1347 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesconcept of the death and if it is truly constitutional in regards to the other amendment. The first case that the Supreme Court ruled on that shaped the modern death penalty is Furman v. Georgia. On June 29, 1972, the Burger Court answered the question Ã¢â¬Å"Does the imposition and carrying out of the death penalty in these cases constitute cruel and unusual punishment in violation of the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments?Ã¢â¬ (Furman v Georgia). The cases that this question is addressing are Furman v. GeorgiaRead MoreThe purpose of this policy brief is to recommend to the State of Florida a policy that will1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe purpose of this policy brief is to recommend to the State of Florida a policy that will legalize same-sex marriage and acknowledge same-sex marriages recognized by laws in other states. This policy is necessary because current laws in Florida that restrict marriage to different-sex couples violate the US ConstitutionÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to equal protection under the law and because the Due Process Clause protects individuals freedoms of personal choices, which includes their choice to marry and haveRead MoreGay Adoption Should Be Legal1411 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesno longer the only way to raise a child. Today, it is becoming more common for homosexuals to raise children. It is legal for heterosexuals to adopt children in all states; however, homosexuals do not have the same right. Many states are trying to find loopholes to ban homosexuals from adopting. Gay adoption should be legal in all states because children can be raised in the same upbringing as heterosexual parents, sometimes can have better lives than those who are raised by heterosexual parents, andRead MoreThe Fourth Amendment in Criminal Procedure Essay1516 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Fourth Amendment to th e United States Constitution was first introduced in 1789 by James Maddison, and was a part of the Bill of Rights which includes the first ten amendments. The Fourth Amendment was created and ultimately it was created to protect two things the right to privacy and the freedom against unlawful invasions. The exact wording of the Fourth Amendment is Ã¢â¬Å"The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizuresRead More The Right to Own a Gun Essay1072 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesgovernment to tamper with your civil liberties? In recent years, anti-gun politicians have attempted to control guns in the name of crime prevention this is an assault on the Second Amendment rights of US citizens . The Second Amendment states, Ã¢â¬Å" A well regulated Militia being necessary to the Security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.Ã¢â¬ Not only did our Founding Fathers focus thei r debate on the right of people to keep and bear arms, they devotedRead MorePrivacy, As Defined By The Merriam-WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢S Dictionary1354 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesis, Ã¢â¬Å"the quality or state of being apart from company or observationÃ¢â¬ (Merriam-Webster, 2011), and Ã¢â¬Å"freedom from unauthorized intrusionÃ¢â¬ (Merriam-Webster, 2011). Interestingly, the Constitution of the United States does not expressly protect a person s right to privacy! There are however some provisions to privacy within the Bill of Right and the Amendments to the Constitution that do. Among them are the first amendment, that ensures the privacy or belief, the third Amendment, that guarantees theRead MoreEssay about The Bush versus Gore Crisis609 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageshad won, but when they woke up they found out that bush had won with FloridaÃ¢â¬â¢s twenty-five electoral votes. It happened on November 7, 2000. Bush charged that the recounts in Florida broke the rules of the Equal Protection Claus e of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. A 7-2 majority ruled that the Florida recount was being conducted unconstitutionally. The case was covered in controversy as the Majority versus minority opinion on the redress was split along the lines of the moreRead MoreCase Study : Burger King V. Rudzewicz919 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesjurisdiction applied to a franchisee of Burger King restaurants, whose headquarters was in Miami, Florida, when the franchisee and his restaurant were in Drayton Plains, Michigan. The Supreme Court found that personal jurisdiction did apply, holding that Ã¢â¬Å"Jurisdiction is proper, however, where the contacts proximately result from actions by the defendant himself that create a Ã¢â¬Å"substantial connectionÃ¢â¬ with the forum StateÃ¢â¬ (Warner, 2012, p. 135). Further: RudzewiczÃ¢â¬â¢ refusal to make the contractually requiredRead MoreThe Death Penalty Of Capital Punishment960 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespathologies it creates, one must first consider what pathogies it actually creates: (1) It plays a role in producing or exacerbating mental illness in prison; (2) it affects the psychology and self-perception of prisoners, whether or not they can be described as mentally ill; and (3) it raises broader questions about the larger or Ã¢â¬Å"collateralÃ¢â¬ effects of the US prison complex. My evaluation of the Supermax system is that it is a method to make money, but is broken system and not beneficial or healthy forRead MoreCongressmen See The Incumbency Advantage As A Blessing1105 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthat 97% of incumbents were reelected in the past four congressional elections (Friedman 2). The incumbency advantage is clearly evident, and puts the democracy at risk because America was built on the foundation that no one person should fully control the country. Elections are held for our legislators in government to promote the shift in power. It was a leading cause to the creation of the XXII amendment stating that the president can serve two terms max. Each district is hurt by having long-term
Thursday, May 7, 2020
Health Policy, Healthy Cities Policies make the world a more tolerable place to live in. It gives us the societal standards of what is wrong and what is right. It is also expected to be the common ground for all individuals no matter where they are from or how much they earn. In a perfect world, policies are always followed and there would be no loopholes. But sadly, we do not live in a perfect world. Going back to the past two journals that we had, I have realized how much improvement is still needed in the policies and procedures that are already in place in order to protect the majority and advocate for the vulnerable. This journal aims to explore the role of the community in establishing health policies. In this journal, I will talk about my attendance at the Los Amigos meeting in Anaheim, share my experience in attending the Homeless Families with Young Children: A Community Response conference in Long Beach, discuss what I have learned in the Community Health Improvement Plan in Riverside County, and examin e the relevance of my experiences to public health as well as to my personal and professional growth. The first community meeting that I have ever attended was the Los Amigos meeting in Anaheim. As soon as I sat down, the facilitator came up to me and told me how the meeting usually goes. They have a board in front where members could write their personal or community petitions. The Los Amigos members are very welcoming, which gave me the sense of being a part ofShow MoreRelatedThe Quad Cities Area Adult Population1445 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Quad Cities Area adult population generally fails to meet the USDAÃ¢â¬â¢s recommended dietary guideline of consuming at least five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, with only 35.7% reporting meeting these guidelines (Professional Research Consultants, 2015). This policy analysis will review current community efforts within the Quad Cities area that are concentrating on improving fruit and vegetable consumption of area adults. Additional policy options to help increase access, knowledge andRead MoreCalorie Research Paper Outline1035 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬ ¢ St. Petersburg, FL o In a commitment to the health and wellness of employees and citizens of St. Petersburg, Florida, Mayor Rick Kriseman signed 2016Ã¢â¬â¢s Administrative Policy #090130 to improve the nutrition of foods and beverages sold in vending machines on City-owned and operated facilities. The standards require snacks to contain less than 200 calories (except fruit and nut mixes), lower sodium, no trans-fat, and reduced sugar. For beverages, 75% of offerings must include water, 100% fruit juiceRead MoreDoes San Francisco Have The Obligation Of Provide Citizens With Health Access?1022 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCitizens with Health Access? Misty Dawson Kaplan University Case Study: Does San Francisco Have the Obligation to Provide Citizens with Health Access? The question of whether governments have an obligation, legally or morally, to provide citizens with access to health care is one that has been debated for decades and will more than likely continue to be for years to come. Some say governments are morally obligated to provide access and others say they are bound by the right to health. Do governmentsRead MoreReasons For The Food Policy Council For New York City942 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesReasons to establish Food Policy Council for New York City New York City has about 8 million residents. Out of 8 million 1.8 million low-income residents rely on the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (nyc.gov). According to Hunger Experience poll done by food bank of NYC approximately 2.6 million new Yorkers reported difficulty to buy food in 2012 which is 32 percent of the population. About 30 percent of the residents buy less food to afford living in the NYC, and about 17 percent ofRead MoreUnderstanding The Governance Function Of The Chicago Board Of Health1598 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesabout Understanding the governance function of the Chicago Board of Health (CBOH). The first section of the paper will describe the services offered by the Chicago department of health (CDPH), and powers bestowed on the Chicago Board of Health in order to perform its duties efficiently. Additionally the roles and functions of the Chicago Board of Health will be enumerated. Also discussed in this section is how the Department of Health in Chicago col laborates with other government and private agenciesRead MoreArtificial Trans Fat Ban in New York City Essay1009 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNew York City Health Code Ã¢â¬Å"eliminates the use of artificial trans fat in foods stored, distributed, held for service, used in preparation of any menu item, or served in any food service establishment (1).Ã¢â¬ Multiple stakeholders are affected by this policy. These include New York City patrons, restaurants, the New York Health Department, and public health officials. The Department of Health received 2,200 comments in favor of this policy and 70 comments in opposition. The New York Health DepartmentRead MoreEssay on Healthy San Francisco Plan883 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFrancisco began its Healthy San Francisco Plan designed to provide health care for all San Francisco citizens. In 2007, it was estimated that San Francisco had 82,000 uninsured citizens. Under the plan, all uninsured citizens residing in San Francisco can seek care at the citys public and private clinics and hospitals. The basic coverage includes lab work, x-rays, surgery, and preventative care. The city plans to pay for this $203 million coverage by rerouting the $104 million the city currently spendsRead MoreThe Minority Action Committee ( Mac ) Of San Diego Essay1542 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescommitted to improving the liv es of minorities through the adoption of favorable policies. MAC is highly concerned with the high obesity rates amongst minority communities. This policy brief will outline the factors pertaining to the persistent obesity rates amongst minorities Ã¢â¬â specifically, Latino and African American communities Ã¢â¬â and provide policy suggestions to the San Diego city council MAC believes will assist the city of San Diego in reducing the obesity rate in minority communities. Issue TheRead MoreThe Federal Food And Nutrition Program Model1345 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages(Hargreaves, 2015). The Food Trust and PhiladelphiaÃ¢â¬â¢s health department became partners in 2010 and since, the Trust has to some degree or another renovated over 200 stores around the city. For reference, Ã¢â¬Å"a full-on conversion like Olivares cost about $60,000Ã¢â¬ (Hargreaves, 2015). Though somewhat costly and no guarantee, preliminary data suggests the makeovers are having a positive impact. Some participating stores offer monthly neighborhood health checkups, and early indicators are that people whoRead MoreChildhood Obesity : An Ecological Approach Targeting Child Care Centers1612 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFrancisco The aim of this policy proposal is to address the importance of creating an early intervention program to reduce childhood obesity. This prevention plan will be conducted within the cities of San Pablo and Richmond in Contra Costa County. It will focus on meeting the Healthy California 2020 goals of promoting health, adopting healthy eating habits, and maintaining a healthy body weight. This proposal will collaborate with local nutritionists and health educators to provide child care
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Sexual harassment is one of the biggest problems facing our schools and businesses today. A week rarely goes by without a reminder of the pervasiveness of sexual harassment as a social problem. Sexual harassment is a growing problem in the government agencies, schools, and the corporations of the world; however, many corporations are now adopting new anti-harassment policies. We will write a custom essay sample on Understanding of Sexual Harassment or any similar topic only for you Order Now (Conta) The definition of sexual harassment is any unwanted or inappropriate sexual attention. That includes touching, looks, comments, or gestures. A key part of sexual harassment is that it is one sided and unwanted. There is a great difference between sexual arassment and romance or friendship, since those are mutual feelings of two people. Often sexual harassment makes the victim feel guilty, but it is important for the victim to remember that it is not their fault, the fault lies totally on the person who is the harasser. Many times fear is involved in sexual harassment because it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t about physical attraction, itÃ¢â¬â¢s about power. In fact, many sexual harassment incidents take place when one person is in a position of power over the other; or when a woman has an untraditional job such as a police officer, factory worker, business executive, or ny other traditionally male job. Typical victims of harassment are young, single, college-educated, members of a minority racial or ethnic group (if male), in a trainee position (or office/ clerical positions if male), or have an immediate supervisor of the opposite Presently, it is hard for courts and others to decide when sexual harassment has taken place because the definition of sexual harassment is much too broad. Clearing up the legal definition of sexual harassment would discourage and punish harassers and bring comfort to the victims. Here are some points to remember in deciding hen sexual harassment takes place: Sexual harassment is one-sided and * It is about power and not attraction. * Subtle sexual behavior is sometimes socially acceptable, but some would consider it offensive and want it stopped. * Moderate sexual behavior is not socially acceptable, reasonable * Severe sexual behavior is never acceptable. (Swisher 28) Sexual harassment is a major problem in public schools, colleges, and universities. Surveys on college campuses show the number of respondents reporting to have been sexually harassed ranging from 40-70 percent. Only two percent of campus harassment ases involve a professor demanding sex in return for a good grade. Most cases involve male and female students. In public schools current sexual harassment definitions are inappropriate, since bad sexual behavior of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s children isnÃ¢â¬â¢t sexual harassment, but it is a reflection of the vulgar, violent, and the sexually explicit nature of our media and culture. When little six-year-old children get suspended from school for kissing girls on the cheek, it is not an example of sexual harassment but of political Sexual harassment is still a big problem in schools and every school district in Washington now has an antiharassment policy. Junior high or middle school has the biggest problem with sexual harassment mainly because of their immaturity and out-of-control hormonesÃ¢â¬ . Says Viki Simmons of the YWCA. Ã¢â¬Å"Many times in high school, students donÃ¢â¬â¢t think anything about it when harassment happens, but schools are now cracking down on itÃ¢â¬ . Simmons interview) In the business world employers are now on notice that sexual harassment will no longer be tolerated in the workplace. Claims brought against alleged harassers include wrongful termination, invasion of privacy, violation of due process and free speech rights, efamation, and intentional infliction of emotional distress. Sexual harassment usually happens to women in low-paying jobs, or women that have to have a job in order to support themselves and children. If sexual harassment happens at work, write down a detailed description of what took place, so that it is well recorded and you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to think back to the incident. You should keep a note pad handy for this purpose, or write it on a napkin to help you * What actually took place and what the offender said Another way to do this is to write a letter to the harasser. Be sure to keep a copy. Tell the person clearly in the letter that his behavior toward you is unwanted. Tell the person that he will be reported if the behavior doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop (Kolbert). According to the research group Catalyst, recent studies have found that 40 percent to 60 percent of woman say they have been harassed sometime in their Employers have a duty to investigate allegations of sexual harassment, and their employees have a legitimate interest in knowing what activities could result in their termination. Ever clearer definitions of sexual harassment are being implemented by more and more corporations around the country. As this happens, an ncreasing number of companies are searching for new ways of protecting themselves against allegations, adopting their own anti- harassment policies to combat this growing problem. CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s should do a variety of things to stop sexual harassment in the work place. The most important thing is senior management makes it clear to workers that harassment in any form wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be tolerated. If top managers donÃ¢â¬â¢ take the issues seriously, employees wonÃ¢â¬â¢t either. Managers must also understand they are responsible for their Companies need an explicit written policy on sexual harassment that is widely available in the workplace. Most consultants advise companies to do more than just post the policy on bulletin boards. They should distribute it company wide, repeatedly. Copies should be included in new employee orientation packets. Employees should have clear definitions of what sexual harassment is Many companies are now offering employee training sessions on sexual harassment, and many say that follow up training is a good idea. Training programs should include all employees, rather than just managers. The tone should be gender neutral and avoid heavy discussions on male harassment that might cause some resentment among the male employees. Many times programs arenÃ¢â¬â¢t effective because they spend a lot of time just attacking men and not the crime. Companies need a good system to deal with complaints. A clear process for handling complaints shows that a company takes them seriously. Until 1991 it was harder for woman to make allegations of sexual harassment, since woman felt like there was nothing that they could do about it. But the highly publicized hearings of Clarence Thomas and Anita Hill in 1991 changed everything. During the fall of 1991, the subject of sexual harassment grabbed news headlines. Everyone began discussing this issue and motions ran high. Judge Clarence Thomas was nominated to be a Supreme Court Justice, which is AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s highest court, and Supreme Court Justices have their jobs for life. They cannot be fired. Before a person can be made a Justice, he or she must be questioned and Judge Thomas was ounce the head of a U. S. agency called the EEOC. The EEOC makes sure everyone is treated fairly when applying for a job. It also enforces laws against sexual harassment. Anita Hill is a law professor who worked with Judge Thomas at the EEOC many years ago. A few weeks into the Congressional Questioning she came orward and accused Thomas of sexual harassment. She claimed that he used to constantly ask her for dates and spoke to her about pornographic films he had seen. Anita Hill said that she was deeply offended by these remarks but felt that she could not complain. Clarence Thomas was her boss, and she thought that her career could be Anita Hill was a very believable witness. But Judge Thomas denied her charges in the strongest possible terms. Who was telling the truth? The country was divided. But the issue was being discussed everywhere. Women from all across the nation told of their experiences with sexual harassment. And many men admitted being Finally, the senate voted to approve Judge Thomas. But the vote was close. Many senators had doubts about ThomasÃ¢â¬â¢s character. Others did not the, ThomasÃ¢â¬â¢s career should be destroyed because of one personÃ¢â¬â¢s story. They said there was not enough evidence to prove there was wrongdoing. In the end, everyone agreed that sexual harassment is a serious problem everyone must become more sensitive ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to know that men have trouble too. Women are not the only victims of sexual harassment. More and more men are being harassed in the workplace, classrooms, and locker rooms. Whoever is in the position of power tends to be the harasser. Men can a be victims of both woman and other men Sexual harassment is very wide spread, but there are ways of avoiding it, such as: Keeping everything strictly on a business level. If working in the same room as the harasser, create a barrier between the two work stations with a desk or file cabinet, etc. Do not ask for personal favors or special treatment from the harasser so that he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t feel he is owed anything. Do not talk about anything personal. Sexual harassment is always wrong. No one deserves it. And it is always hurtful to the victim. How to cite Understanding of Sexual Harassment, Essay examples
Monday, April 27, 2020
And perhaps you might pretend, afterwards, that it was only a trick and that you Just said it to make them stop and didnt really mean It. But that isnt true. At the time when It happens you do mean it. You think theres no other way of saving yourself and youre quite ready to save yourself that way. We will write a custom essay sample on The Three Slogans of the Party or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page You want It to happen to the other person. You dont give a damn what they suffer. All you care about Is yourself. Book Three, Chapter VI. And perhaps you might pretend, afterwards, that it was only a trick and that you just said it to make them stop and didnt really mean it. But that isnt true.At the time when it happens you do mean it. You think theres no other way of saving yourself and youre quite ready to save yourself that way. You want it to happen to the other person. You dont give a damn what they suffer. All you care about is yourself. Book Three, Chapter VI. In the end the Party would announce that two and two made five, and you would have to believe It was inevitable that they should make that claim sooner or later: the logic of their position demanded it. Not merely the validity of experience, but the very existence of external reality was acidly denied by their philosophy. Book One, Chapter VII. In the end the Party would announce that two and two made five, and you would have to believe It. It was Inevitable that they should make that claim sooner or later: the logic of their position demanded It. Not merely the validity of experience, but the very existence of external reality was tacitly denied by their philosophy.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Music, music videos and the lyrics that go along with the music of this century are greatly influencing the youth of America in negative ways. It is portraying the use of alcohol and drugs as both normal and acceptable, and also glorifying it. It is showing young women wearing provocative clothing, and promoting pre-marital sex. It is also teaching the youth of gangs, weapons, and violent behaviors such as murder and suicide as everyday activities. It is teaching the youth to grow up and face a reality that they are not responsible for knowing. Ã¢â¬ËIncreased television and music video viewing are risk factors for the onset of alcohol use in adolescents. Attempts to prevent adolescent alcohol use should address the adverse influences of alcohol use in the media.Ã¢â¬â¢(Television and Music Video Exposure and Risk of Adolescent Alcohol Use) Many rappers glorify the use of drug and alcohol use. They rap about smoking weed, popping pills, and drinking fortyÃ¢â¬â¢s, and the youth of America is paying attention to these lyrics. Is it not bad enough that they rap about such behaviors that MTV had to give them the privilege of promoting such negative behavior in their videos. Such music or hip hop or rap is not always a danger for a teenager, but if a teenager is always interested in the unsound lyrics that are the themes of their music it can cause teenagers to be isolated, depressed, and turn to drug and alcohol use.(The Influence of Music and Music Videos) Sex sells, or at least the record industries say so. Just ask Brittney Spears or Nsync who credit of success normally is not given to their ability to sing but rather to their good looks. Another source you can yet again turn to is rap videos, who are widely known for the dancers, which are normally women in lingerie or skimpy bathing suits. Many parents are afraid to sit down and watch TV at night with they young children because they are afraid of what they will see on the ... Free Essays on Does Music Have An Influence On Teens Free Essays on Does Music Have An Influence On Teens Music, music videos and the lyrics that go along with the music of this century are greatly influencing the youth of America in negative ways. It is portraying the use of alcohol and drugs as both normal and acceptable, and also glorifying it. It is showing young women wearing provocative clothing, and promoting pre-marital sex. It is also teaching the youth of gangs, weapons, and violent behaviors such as murder and suicide as everyday activities. It is teaching the youth to grow up and face a reality that they are not responsible for knowing. Ã¢â¬ËIncreased television and music video viewing are risk factors for the onset of alcohol use in adolescents. Attempts to prevent adolescent alcohol use should address the adverse influences of alcohol use in the media.Ã¢â¬â¢(Television and Music Video Exposure and Risk of Adolescent Alcohol Use) Many rappers glorify the use of drug and alcohol use. They rap about smoking weed, popping pills, and drinking fortyÃ¢â¬â¢s, and the youth of America is paying attention to these lyrics. Is it not bad enough that they rap about such behaviors that MTV had to give them the privilege of promoting such negative behavior in their videos. Such music or hip hop or rap is not always a danger for a teenager, but if a teenager is always interested in the unsound lyrics that are the themes of their music it can cause teenagers to be isolated, depressed, and turn to drug and alcohol use.(The Influence of Music and Music Videos) Sex sells, or at least the record industries say so. Just ask Brittney Spears or Nsync who credit of success normally is not given to their ability to sing but rather to their good looks. Another source you can yet again turn to is rap videos, who are widely known for the dancers, which are normally women in lingerie or skimpy bathing suits. Many parents are afraid to sit down and watch TV at night with they young children because they are afraid of what they will see on the ...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Types of Scales in Social Science Research A scale is a type of composite measure that is composed of several items that have a logical or empirical structure among them. That is, scales make use of differences in intensity among the indicators of a variable. For example, when a question has the response choices of always, sometimes, rarely, and never, this represents a scale because the answer choices are rank-ordered and have differences in intensity. Another example would be strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree, strongly disagree. There are several different types of scales. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll look at four commonly used scales in social science research and how they are constructed. Likert Scale Likert scales are one of the most commonly used scales in social science research. They offer a simple rating system that is common to surveys of all kinds. The scale is named for the psychologist who created it,Ã Rensis Likert. One common use of the Likert scale is a survey that asks respondents to offer their opinion on something by stating the level to which they agree or disagree. It often looks like this: Strongly agreeAgreeNeither agree nor disagreeDisagreeStrongly disagree Within the scale, the individual items that compose it are called Likert items. To create the scale, each answer choice is assigned a score (for instance, 0-4), and the answers for several Likert items (that measure the same concept) can be added together for each individual to obtain an overall Likert score. For example, letÃ¢â¬â¢s say that were interested in measuring prejudice against women. One method would be to create a series of statements reflecting prejudiced ideas, each with the Likert response categories listed above. For example, some of the statements might be, Women shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be allowed to vote, or Women canÃ¢â¬â¢t drive as well as men. We would then assign each of the response categories a score of 0 to 4 (for example, assign a score of 0 to strongly disagree, a 1 to disagree, a 2 to neither agree or disagree, etc.). The scores for each of the statements would then be totaled for each respondent to create an overall score of prejudice. If we had fiveÃ statements and a respondent answered strongly agree to each item, his or her overall prejudice score would be 20, indicating a very high degree of prejudice against women. Bogardus Social Distance Scale The Bogardus social distance scale was created by sociologist Emory S. Bogardus as a technique for measuring the willingness of people to participate in social relations with other kinds of people. (Incidentally, Bogardus established one of the first departments of sociology on American soil at the University of Southern California in 1915.) Quite simply, the scale invites people to state the degree to which they are accepting of other groups. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s say we are interested in the extent to which Christians in the U.S. are willing to associate with Muslims. We might ask the following questions: Are you willing to live in the same country as Muslims?Are you willing to live in the same community as Muslims?Are you willing to live in the same neighborhood as Muslims?Are you willing to live next door to a Muslim?Are you willing to let your son or daughter marry a Muslim? The clear differences in intensity suggest a structure among the items. Presumably, if a person is willing to accept a certain association, he is willing to accept all those that precede it on the list (those with lesser intensities), though this is not necessarily the case as some critics of this scale point out. Each item on the scale is scored to reflect the level of social distance, from 1.00 as a measure of no social distance (which would apply to question 5 in the above survey), to 5.00 measuring maximize social distance in the given scale (though the level of social distance could be higher on other scales). When the ratings for each response are averaged, a lower score indicates a greater level of acceptance than does a higher score. Thurstone Scale The Thurstone scale, created by Louis Thurstone, is intended to develop a format for generating groups of indicators of a variable that have an empirical structure among them. For example, if you were studying discrimination, you would create a list of items (10, for example) and then ask respondents to assign scores of 1 to 10 to each item. In essence, respondents are ranking the items in order of the weakest indicator of discrimination all the way to the strongest indicator. Once the respondents have scored the items, the researcher examines the scores assigned to each item by all the respondents to determine which items the respondents agreed upon most. If the scale items were adequately developed and scored, the economy and effectiveness of data reduction present in the Bogardus social distance scale would appear. Semantic Differential Scale The semantic differential scale asks respondents to answer a questionnaire and choose between two opposite positions, using qualifiers to bridge the gap between them. For instance, suppose you wanted to get respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ opinions about a new comedy television show. Youd first decide what dimensions to measure and then find two opposite terms that represent those dimensions. For example, enjoyable and unenjoyable, funny and not funny, relatable and not relatable. You would then create a rating sheet for respondents to indicate how they feel about the television show in each dimension. Your questionnaire would look something like this: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Very MuchÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã SomewhatÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã NeitherÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã SomewhatÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Very MuchEnjoyableÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã XÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã UnenjoyableFunnyÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã XÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Not FunnyRelatableÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã XÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Unrelatable
Saturday, February 15, 2020
An Analysis of a Consequentialist Claim in the Dalai Lama - Essay Example Issues to do with the rise in population and the advancement of technology are affecting the nature. He says that the environmental disasters being witnessed are due to our irresponsible behavior. Lama gives a case example of Tibet where he grew up and the changes in environment that have undergone in the past years and its consequences (Gyatso 1). According to Lama, Tibet was once a wildlife paradise. The wildlife in Tibet was rarely hunted and hunting only occurred in the remote areas where crops could not be planted. It was a custom for the government officials to make a proclamation on protecting wildlife. He claims that there were no provisions to harm the animals whether on land or in water, in fact, the only animals allowed to do so were the wolves and rats. However, the contribution of hunting in the loss of wildlife is not significant (Gyatso 1). He offers a vivid picture of Tibet when he was young. During his travelling at that time, he used to see a number of species on the way. These species range from mammals to birds. He recalls how he interacted with the animals and other forms of nature (Gyatso 1). The wildlife is long gone and this is due to the loss of habitat and partly due to hunting. Only a small fraction of the habitat remains in Tibet. The forests in Tibet are also gone; he compares the present state of Tibet forest with a clean shaven monkÃ¢â¬â¢s head. He says that the solutions lie within us and there is need to fix our behaviors not the environment; technology does not offer most of the solutions (Gyatso 1). The argument of Dalai Lama is valid to some extent. The source of environmental destruction is from the human beings. This is true because most of the activities done by human beings including industrialization affect the environment negatively. Most of the environmental disasters like floods are due to deforestation and the destruction of habitats. Thus, his claim that environmental disasters are due to our irresponsible